by Donald S. McAlvaney, Editor,
McAlvaney Intelligence Advisor (MIA),
The U.S. government has been involved in biological warfare research and production since at least 1950, and probably since the 1920s. When it became a signatory to the 1972 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and On Their Destruction, it simply went, for the most part, underground with its efforts and farmed them out to private companies (some of them undoubtedly CIA fronts) and universities. Biological warfare research is also done at Fort Detrick, MD.
A. APPROPRIATIONS FOR BIOLOGICAL WARFARE RESEARCH
In 1969, hearings were held before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives (91st Congress) for H.B. 15090 (now Public Law 91-171). The appropriations were passed in 1970. Page 129 of the budget proposal for funding America’s new biological warfare program follows:
“There are two things about the biological agent field I would like to mention. One is the possibility of technological surprise. Molecular biology is a field that is advancing very rapidly, and eminent biologists believe that within a period of 5 to 10 years it would be possible to produce a synthetic biological agent, an agent that does not naturally exist and for which no harmful immunity could have been acquired. Mr. Sikes: Are we doing any work in that field? Dr. MacArthur: We are not. Mr. Sikes: Why not? Lack of money or lack of interest? Dr. MacArthur: Certainly not lack of interest. Mr. Sikes: Would you provide for our records information on what would be required, what the advantages of such a program would be, the time and the cost involved? Dr. MacArthur: We will be very happy to. (The information follows): The dramatic progress being made in the field of molecular biology led us to investigate the relevance of this field of science to biological warfare. A small group of experts considered this matter and provided the following observations: 1. All biological agents up to the present time are representatives of naturally occurring disease, and are thus known by scientists throughout the world. They are easily available to qualified scientists for research, either for offensive or defensive purposes. 2. Within the next 5 to 10 years it would probably be possible to make a new infective microorganism which could differ in certain important aspects from any known disease-causing organism. Most important of these is that it might be refractory to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease. 3. A research program to explore the feasibility of this could be completed in approximately 5 years at a total cost of $10 million. 4. It would be very difficult to establish such a program. Molecular biology is a relatively new science. There are not many highly competent scientists in the field, almost all are in university laboratories, and they are generally adequately supported from other sources other than DOD. However, it was considered possible to initiate an adequate program through the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC). The matter was discussed with the NAS-NRC, and tentative plans were made to initiate the program. However, decreasing funds in CB, growing criticism of the CB program, and our reluctance to involve the NAS-NRC in such a controversial endeavor have led us to postpone it for the past two years. It is a highly controversial issue, and there are many who believe such research should not be undertaken lest it lead to yet another method of massive killing of large populations. On the other hand, without the sure scientific knowledge that such a weapon is possible, and an understanding of the ways it could be done, there is little that can be done to devise defensive measures. Should an enemy develop it, there is little doubt that this is an important area of potential military technological inferiority in which there is no adequate research program.
[ED. NOTE: This was the beginning! Russia has been working on its own biological warfare program for at least as long – – perhaps 5 to 10 years longer.]
Such products were in fact developed and tested in subsequent years with much of the research and product development farmed out to private businesses and certain universities working in close collaboration with the U.S. government. Many of the products so developed were subsequently sold to Saddam Hussein and used in his own biological research (germ warfare and development). Saddam also received much assistance in developing his program from Russia. Saddam received biologicals from the U.S. for five years (from 1985-’89) and tested them on Iranian soldiers in the Iran/Iraq War.
A list of over 80 companies (U.S. and foreign) which are named as defendants in the Veterans’ class action lawsuit (as of 3-1-96) and which are alleged to have participated in the production, sale and delivery of biologicals or equipment for building biological production facilities in Iraq is available in materials obtainable from Joyce Riley at the American Gulf War Veterans Association, 3506 Highway 6 South #117, Sugarland, TX 77478-4401 (1-713-587-5437)
This entire report is available for $5 from McAlvany Intelligence Advisor, P. O. Box 84904, Phoenix, AZ 85071 Phone 1-800-528-0559. The Copyright has been lifted from this report so that it can be distributed widely – especially to Gulf War Veterans, physicians and health care providers.